Elizabeth i and mary queen of

The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively-declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was.

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Mary was in prison for 19 years, and this meant that her son, James, did not ever know his mother. Instead, Elizabeth just stopped answering her letters.

Not only were the two absolute rulers in a patriarchal society, but they were also women whose lives, while seemingly inextricable, amounted to more than their either their relationships with men or their rivalry with each other.

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Elizabeth sent a new ambassador, Dr. The next pope, Gregory XIII, elected inadvocated an even more extreme anti-Protestant stance than his predecessor, encouraging numerous schemes to invade England, and depose and assassinate Elizabeth.

To her frustration, [] he made little progress and returned to England in defiance of her orders. In September Mary was moved to Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire where she would be tried for treason: the stage was set for the final act of struggle between the two queens.

An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over whom the queen had little control.

Consequently, plots and conspiracies abounded, with the first taking place within a year of Mary's arrival.

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Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Headwhich many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear. It was crushed fairly quickly, but it represented the first serious challenge to Elizabeth's authority, as well as receiving the backing of the Pope.

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Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England. Elizabeth was determined that Mary should admit her wrongdoing and ask for forgiveness, clinging to the possibility of pardoning her cousin and saving her life. But when her uncle, the Cardinal of Lorraine , began negotiations with Archduke Charles of Austria without her consent, she angrily objected and the negotiations foundered. Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head to the Babington Plot of , Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her. Anne was executed less than three years after Elizabeth's birth. During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond , in , an estimated 30, Irish people starved to death. The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively-declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was. However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton , and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear. Both queens were surprisingly fluid in their religious inclinations. Her son James was to become king with the Earl of Moray as regent. The Protestants did not want Mary, a Catholic and their official queen, to have any influence. She was arrested on 11 August and brought to trial in October. In , the campaign of John Norreys , who led 3, men to Brittany , was even more of a disaster. She feared for her life.
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Elizabeth I and Mary, Queen of Scots: Cousins, Rivals, Queens